This site provides INTERCEPT product information for Health Care Professionals in the United States.

Resources

INTERCEPT Blood System for Platelets, pathogen reduction system Publications:

Citation Topic
Mechanism of Action
Wollowitz S. Fundamentals of the psoralen-based Helinx technology for inactivation of infectious pathogens and leukocytes in platelets and plasma. Semin Hematol 2001;38:4-11. Mechanism of Action
In Vitro Pathogen Reduction – Bacteria  
Lin, L et al. Photochemical treatment of platelet concentrates with amotosalen and UVA inactivates a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. Transfusion, 2004. 44: p. 1496 – 1504. Inactivation Data: In vitro study evaluating inactivation efficacy of INTERCEPT for high titers of bacteria. Following treatment, units were stored for 5 days under standard platelet storage conditions. No viable bacteria were detected in any treated unit after storage.
Schmidt, MS et al. Efficiency of the pathogen inactivation system INTERCEPT under experimental conditions. Vox Sang, 2011. 101(Suppl 1): p. 226. Inactivation Data: In vitro study evaluating inactivation efficacy of INTERCEPT for platelet units spiked with bacteria.
Nussbaumer, W et al. Prevention of transfusion of platelet components contaminated with low levels of bacteria: a comparison of bacteria culture and pathogen inactivation methods. Transfusion, 2007. 47(7): p. 1125-33. Inactivation Data: In vitro study evaluating inactivation efficacy of INTERCEPT for platelet units spiked with bacteria. Samples were monitored by culture for 5 days post-collection. Detection of bacteria in the untreated platelet units was variable at lower titers and required extended culture times for some strains. None of the INTERCEPT -treated units produced a positive culture result.
Schmidt, M et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a pathogen inactivation technology against clinically relevant transfusion-transmitted bateria strains. Transfusion 2015 Sep;55(9):2104–12. Inactivation Data: In vitro study evaluating inactivation efficacy in whole blood, apheresis, and buffy coat platelets spiked at two different concentrations and measured at two time points. Results demonstrate the need for minimal time period between blood donation and inactivation.
In Vitro Pathogen Reduction – Viruses  
Lin, L et al. Inactivation of viruses in platelet concentrates by photochemical treatment with amotosalen and long-wavelength ultraviolet light. Transfusion, 2005. 45: p. 580-590. Inactivation Data: In vitro study evaluating efficacy of INTERCEPT for inactivation of viruses.
Roback, J. CMV Safety of Platelet Products: Comparison of Inactivation of INTERCEPT Blood System and Removal of Leukofiltration. Transfusion, 2007a. 47(S3): p. 23A. CMV In Vitro Study: No cell-free or cell-associated CMV was detected in a viral cell culture assay following INTERCEPT treatment, while CMV was detected leukoreduced components.
Roback, J. Inactivation of Infectious CMV in Platelet Products: Comparison of Inactivation of INTERCEPT Blood System and Leukofiltration. Blood, 2007b. 110(11): p. 849A. CMV In Vitro Study: No cell-free or cell-associated CMV was detected in a viral cell culture assay following INTERCEPT treatment, while CMV was detected leukoreduced components.
Jordan, CT et al. Photochemical treatment of platelet concentrates with amotosalen hydrochloride and ultraviolet A light inactivates free and latent cytomegalovirus in a murine transfusion model. Transfusion, 2004. 44: p. 1159-1165. CMV In Vivo Study: INTERCEPT treatment of platelet concentrates prevented transfusion-transmitted CMV in an immune-compromised mouse model.
Lin, L. Inactivation of cytomegalovirus in platelet concentrates using HelinxTM technology. Semin Hematol, 2001. 38(4 Suppl 11): p. 27-33. CMV In Vivo Study: INTERCEPT treatment of platelet concentrates prevented transfusion-transmitted CMV in an immune-compromised mouse model.
Sawyer, L et al. Inactivation of influenza A H5N1 and Lymphocytic Choriomenigitis virus (LCMV) by the INTERCEPT Blood System (IBS). Transfusion, 2008. 48(2S): p. 88A. Emerging Pathogens: In vitro study evaluating inactivation efficacy of INTERCEPT for Influenza virus (H5N1).
Van Voorhis, WC, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi inactivation in human platelet concentrates and plasma by a psoralen (amotosalen HCl) and long-wavelength UV. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47(2): 475-9. Emerging Pathogens: In vitro study evaluating efficacy of INTERCEPT for inactivation of T. cruzi (Chagas).
Dupuis, K, et al. High titers of dengue virus in platelet concentrates are inactivated by amotosalen and UVA light. Transfusion, 2012. 52((3S)): p. 225A. Emerging Pathogens: In vitro study evaluating efficacy of INTERCEPT for inactivation of dengue virus.
Grellier, P et al. Photochemical inactivation with amotosalen and long-wavelength ultraviolet light of Plasmodium and Babesia in platelet and plasma components. Transfusion 2008;48(8): 1676-84. Emerging Pathogens: In vitro study evaluating efficacy of INTERCEPT for inactivation of Plasmodium (malaria) and Babesia.
Tsetsarkin, KA et al. Photochemical Inactivation of Chikungunya Virus in Human Apheresis Platelet Components by Amotosalen and UVA Light. Am J Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013;88(6):1163-69. Emerging Pathogens: In vitro study evaluating efficacy of INTERCEPT for inactivation of Chikungunya.
Eastman, RT et al, Leishmania inactivation in human pheresis platelets by a psoralen (amotosalen HCl) and long-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation. Transfusion, 2005. 45(9): p. 1459-63. Emerging Pathogens: In vitro study evaluating efficacy of INTERCEPT for inactivation of Leishmania.
TA-GvHD and INTERCEPT  
Grass, JA et al. Prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease by photochemical treatment. Blood 1999;93(9):3140-3147. In vivo GVHD Study: Evaluation of the efficacy of INTERCEPT to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) in vivo using a well-characterized murine transfusion model.
Corash, L and L Lin, Novel processes for inactivation of leukocytes to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 2004. 33: p. 1-7. In vivo GVHD Study: Using a limiting dilution assay (LDA), the INTERCEPT Blood System demonstrates reduction of viable T-cells
Lin, L et al. Protection against TA-GVHD due to platelet transfusion by using pathogen inactivation with the INTERCEPT Blood System: gamma irradiation is not the only answer. Haematologica, 2010. 95 (Suppl 1): p. 230-237. In vivo GVHD Study: Treatment results in approximately one amotosalen adduct per 83 base pairs, a sufficient frequency to ensure inactivation of most genes.
Hei, DJ, et al. Elimination of cytokine production in stored platelet concentrate aliquots by photochemical treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet A light. Transfusion, 1999. 39: p. 239-48. In vivo GVHD Study: Cytokine production was substantially inhibited in the sample treated with INTERCEPT.
Clinical Trials, Observational Studies  
Snyder, E et al. Recovery and Lifespan of 111 Indium radiolabeled platelets treated with pathogen inactivation using amotosalen HCl (S-59) and UVA light. Transfusion, 2004. 44: p. 1732-1440. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
Evaluated viability of INTERECEPT processed platelets in healthy subjects (recovery and survival).
Corash, L et al. S-59 clearance and kinetics after transfusion of platelets treated with Helinx™ Technology. Transfusion, 2000. 40(S10): p. 137. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
Evaluated clearance of residual amotosalen in healthy subjects.
McCullough, J et al. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of platelets treated with a photochemical process for pathogen inactivation: the SPRINT Trial. Blood, 2004. 104(5): p. 1534-41. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
SPRINT study. Evaluated safety, efficacy of INTERCEPT platelets. Primary endpoint was Grade 2 bleeding (primary endpoint met). (N=645)
Murphy, S et al. Platelet dose consistency and its effect on the number of platelet transfusions for support of thrombocytopenia: an analysis of the SPRINT trial of platelets photochemically treated with amotosalen HCl and ultraviolet A light. Transfusion. 2006 Jan;46(1):24-33. Follow Up Analysis for SPRINT Study:
Analyzed platelet dose to determine the impact of the number of platelets transfused on transfusion requirements. Lower CIs and shorter transfusion intervals for INTERCEPT platelets suggest that platelet injury may occur during treatment; however, this injury does not result in a detectable increase in bleeding.
Slichter, SJ et al. Dose of prophylactic platelet transfusions and prevention of hemorrhage. N Engl J Med, 2010. 362:600-613. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
(Not an INTERCEPT study)
PLADO study. Evaluated platelet dose on bleeding in patients.
Corash, L et al. Determination of acute lung injury after repeated platelet transfusions. Blood. 2011 Jan 20;117(3):1014-20. SPRINT retrospective re-analysis (most recent publication): No difference was found between the treated and untreated groups with regard to acute lung injury (ALI), including ARDs (discrepancy likely due to differences diagnosis criteria used for ALI).
Snyder, E et al. Clinical safety of platelets photochemically treated with amotosalen HCl and ultraviolet A light for pathogen inactivation: the SPRINT trial. Transfusion, 2005. 45(12):1864-75. SPRINT retrospective re-analysis: No difference was found between the treated and untreated groups with regard to acute lung injury (ALI), including ARDs (discrepancy likely due to differences diagnosis criteria used for ALI).
Janetzko, K et al. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of photochemically treated apheresis platelets processed with an optimized integrated set. Transfusion, 2005. 45(9):1443-1452. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
Evaluated safety, efficacy of INTERCEPT platelets. Primary endpoint was 1 hr platelet count increment (primary endpoint met). (N=43)
van Rhenen, D J et al. Transfusion of pooled buffy coat platelet components prepared with photochemical pathogen inactivation treatment: the euroSPRITE trial. Blood, 2003. 101:2426-2433. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
EuroSprite study. Evaluated safety, efficacy of INTERCEPT platelets. Primary endpoint was 1 hr platelet count increment (primary endpoint met). (N=103)
Slichter, SJ et al. Platelets photochemically treated with amotoslaen HCl and ultraviolet A light correct prolonged bleeding times in thrombocytopenic patients. Transfusion, 2006. 46:731-740. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study:
Evaluated safety, efficacy of INTERCEPT platelets. Primary endpoint was bleeding time (primary endpoint met). (N=32)
Schlenke, P et al. Safety and clinical efficacy of platelet components prepared with pathogen inactivation in routine use for thrombocytopenic patients. Ann Hematol, 2011. 90(12):1457-65. Observational Study: Evaluated frequency of acute transfusion reactions in routine setting. (N=51)
Infanti, L et al. Pathogen-inactivation of platelet components with the INTERCEPT Blood System : a cohort study. Transfus Apher Sci, 2011. 45(2):175-81. Observational Study: Evaluated frequency of acute transfusion reactions in routine setting. (N=46)
Platelet Hemovigilance  
Schulz WL, et al. Blood Utilization and Transfusion Reactions in Pediatric Patients Transfused with Conventional or Pathogen Reduced Platelets. J Pediatr. 2019 Jun;209:220-225. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.01.046. Epub 2019 Mar 15. PMID: 30885645. Platelets – Routine Use / Pediatrics: Assessment of the safety and efficacy of INTERCEPT platelets in NICU and pediatric patients.
Amato M, et al. Impact of platelet pathogen inactivation on blood component utilization and patient safety in a large Austrian Regional Medical Centre. Vox Sang. 2017 Jan;112(1):47-55. doi: 10.1111/vox.12456. Epub 2016 Dec 21. PMID: 28001297. Platelets – Routine Use / PediatricsEuropean comparative effectiveness study of psoralen-treated platelets and conventional platelets.
Knutson, F et al. A prospective, active haemovigilance study with combined cohort analysis of 19,175 transfusions of platelet components prepared with amotosalen-UVA photochemical treatment. Vox Sang 2015 May 15. doi:10.1111/vox.12287 [Epub ahead of print]. Platelets – Routine Use: Hemovigilance study evaluating 4,067 patients receiving 19,175 platelet transfusions 7 years, in 21 centres, across 11 countries.
Osselaer, JC et al. An active haemovigilance programme characterizing the safety profile of 7437 platelet transfusions prepared with amotosalen photochemical treatment. Vox Sang, 2008. 94(4):315-23. An active haemovigilance programme characterizing the safety profile of 7437 platelet transfusions prepared with amotosalen photochemical treatment. Vox Sang, 2008. 94(4):315-23. Platelets – Routine Use: Active hemovigilance study evaluating the routine use of INTERCEPT platelets.
Osselaer, JC et al. A prospective observational cohort safety study of 5106 platelet transfusions with components prepared with photochemical pathogen inactivation treatment. Transfusion, 2008. 48(6):1061-71. A prospective observational cohort safety study of 5106 platelet transfusions with components prepared with photochemical pathogen inactivation treatment. Transfusion, 2008. 48(6):1061-71. Platelets – Routine Use: Hemovigilance study evaluating the routine use of INTERCEPT platelets.
Osselaer, JC et al. Universal adoption of pathogen inactivation of platelet components: impact on platelet and red blood cell component use. Transfusion, 2009. 49(7):1412-22. Platelets – Routine Use: Hemovigilance study evaluating the routine use of INTERCEPT platelets.
Cazenave, J et al. Use of additive solutions and pathogen inactivation treatment of platelet components in a regional blood center: impact on patient outcomes and component utilization during a 3-year period. Transfusion, 2011. 51(3):622-9. Platelets – Routine Use: Hemovigilance study evaluating the routine use of INTERCEPT platelets in France.
Cazenave, JP, H Isola, et al., Pathogen Inactivation of Platelets, in Platelet Transfusion Therapy, J.D. Sweeney and M. Lozano, Editors. 2013, AABB Press: Bethesda, MD.119-176. Platelets – Routine Use: National hemovigilance study evaluating the routine use of INTERCEPT platelets in France.
Toxicity Studies  
Ciaravino, V et al. Pharmacokinetic and toxicology assessment of INTERCEPT (S-59 AND UVA treated) platelets. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2001. 20:533-550. Toxicity: Animal studies (rats, dogs) evaluating toxicology and kinetics of INTERCEPT.
Ciaravino, V et al. Assessment of safety in neonates for transfusion of platelets and plasma prepared with amotosalen photochemical pathogen inactivation treatment by a 1-month intravenous toxicity study in neonatal rats. Transfusion 2009; 49:985–994. Toxicity: Studies conducted in neonatal rats to evaluate the safety of INTERCEPT-treated blood components for neonates. No reproductive or developmental toxicities observed.
Tice, RR et al. The pathogen reduction treatment of platelets with S-59 HCl (Amotosalen) plus ultraviolet A light: genotoxicity profile and hazard assessment. Mutation Research 2007;630:50-68. Toxicity: Reviews the genotoxicity profile of INTERCEPT, and assesses the mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards in recipients of treated components. No genotoxicity or mutagenicity observed.
Pediatrics  
Schulz WL, et al. Blood Utilization and Transfusion Reactions in Pediatric Patients Transfused with Conventional or Pathogen Reduced Platelets. J Pediatr. 2019 Jun;209:220-225. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.01.046. Epub 2019 Mar 15. PMID: 30885645. Platelets – Routine Use / Pediatrics: Assessment of the safety and efficacy of INTERCEPT platelets in NICU and pediatric patients.
Amato M, et al. Impact of platelet pathogen inactivation on blood component utilization and patient safety in a large Austrian Regional Medical Centre. Vox Sang. 2017 Jan;112(1):47-55. doi: 10.1111/vox.12456. Epub 2016 Dec 21. PMID: 28001297. Platelets – Routine Use / PediatricsEuropean comparative effectiveness study of psoralen-treated platelets and conventional platelets.
Other  

AABB, Standards for Blood Banks and Transfusion Services 32nd Edition. 2020, AABB: Bethesda, MD.

AABB Standard 5.1.5.2. Methods required to detect bacteria or use pathogen reduction in platelet components.